Captured The Flag

Along with my friend eth3real (and some pitching in from our new friend Brian), we teamed up as DefCon828 and won the Capture the Flag contest at BSides Asheville today. The loot was some cool WiFi Pineapple gear.

Last month, Jess and I won 1st and 2nd place respectively at BlueRidgeCon. I do feel bad about missing out on the lectures, talks, and socialization at these awesome conferences, but I can’t stay away from the CTFs. It’s bad.

Smart Safety and Savvy Cyber Security for Your Small Business

When you started up your business you understood from the very beginning how important security is. So many businesses fail because they are hacked into or exposed by geniuses behind screens. Security can be the one essential thing that is letting your small business down, so it’s time to get to grips with it. Whether you’re a technological wizard or a technophobe, there are several security measures you need to have in place when you own a small business. This will prevent anything untoward from happening to your company and will ensure that you private details are kept under wraps.

Perfect Privacy

The way in which your internet is connected will make for a safe or unsafe environment for your business. You absolutely need to invest in a VPN, (which stands for Virtual Private Network) if you value your online privacy at all. When a VPN is used all of your internet traffic is diverted through a private tunnel, so that meddling eyes can’t view your online activity.  This is especially important for business owners because you need to keep your personal and business information secure. Look online and compare vpn providers, so that you can feel fully at ease with your internet connection.

Password Protection

Your password might be something as simple as your dog’s name or the name of the street you live on. Hackers can put together a jigsaw of information from everybody who operates online. If you are using an obvious password like this, then there is a high risk you are going to get hacked. It can be a pain to remember long numerical passwords containing several cases and special characters, but it is so important to adhere to these guidelines. You will be putting your business and your clients at risk if you don’t have solid, strong passwords for every piece of software and online programme you use. Never share your passwords with anybody and don’t write them down in an obvious place. Try and use different passwords for varying programmes too so that if one gets compromised the others will be safe.

Financial Fall-backs

All of your financial information is going to be stored online in some way. If a hacker manages to get their hands on this you will be majorly in trouble. If you receive a text or an email from your bank asking for personal details and passwords, make sure you do not reply to it. Report it to your bank straight away and let them know you have been a victim of a phishing attack. The more people who come forward with these cases the better, as it will stop the hackers in their tracks.

You want your business to survive and thrive in the current economic climate and the only way to do this is by keeping your data safe. Not only is your private and confidential information important but your customer’s information could be under threat too. That is arguably the more important aspect of your business to protect; otherwise you will be compromising their personal privacy. Make sure your finances are secure and your data is all covered and you will be set for success in the business world.

Ghostery’s GDPR Privacy Fail

I guess, somewhere along the way, I had registered an account with Ghostery when I was using their privacy plugin.

Today, I got a GDPR update notification from them, along with a ton of other users. The thing is, they failed to use the BCC field when they sent the email, so everyone’s names and email addresses were exposed to everyone else.

I suppose they better practice their GDPR habits a bit harder.


 

What Note Taking App is Best for PWK and OSCP?

A very common question in OSCP student chat rooms and channels I hang out in is “should I be using something other than Keepnote?”

It is a fair question considering Keepnote is recommended in the PWK course materials. However, you may notice that it hasn’t been updated in over 6 years, and has actually been dropped from recent Kali versions. I have heard tales of OSCP students’ notes getting corrupted and lost, which is not a good situation to face when you are paying for limited time to complete the coursework (and exam).

If you are starting down the PWK/OSCP path, you will soon realize that you will need to take a lot of notes. Not just on the course materials, but on every exercise you do and every machine in the lab that you work on. This includes screenshots, copy-pasted output from nmap and other tools, and the specific steps you took to conquer a box (and hopefully the steps that didn’t work, from which you can reference in the future).

It adds up quickly, and it’s a challenge to keep straight as you hack away at box after box in the lab. Being a person that has kept a keen eye on note taking apps in general, long before I got my OSCP, I have some recommendations, with pros and cons of each.

In no particular order (see my Recommendations at the bottom):

CherryTree

Learn more and download CherryTree here.

The Good

  • Hierarchical (pretty much unlimited depth)
  • Free, open-source software for Linux and Windows. You *can* get this to run on a Mac, but it’s buggy
  • Highly customizable through preferences and templates
  • Imports notes from tons of places, does some good exporting too

The Bad

  • Can’t paste images from the clipboard directly into notes
  • Not the greatest at embedding files in general
  • Not easily synced between devices/VMs
  • No Mac or mobile device support

CherryTree is like KeepNote in many ways, but it is has many more features and is actively maintained. If you are going to be solely storing and referencing your notes on one machine (your host or Kali VM), use this tool. The template feature is really awesome, and it lets you create a new note based on a template of your design. This means you could create a template for Lab VMs that you can quickly populate with data as you work on a given machine. You could do something similar for PWK exercises. It should make reporting much easier.

Evernote

Download Evernote here.

The Good

  • Feature rich app, integrates with Web Clipper browser extension
  • Windows, Mac, iPhone, Android native clients with web version for Linux
  • Is modern and hip, if that matters to you

The Bad

  • Costs $ if you want it to be any good. Free features seem to be waning as they push people into paying for the service
  • Lacks true hierarchical organization (uses tags instead of folders)

My struggles with Evernote have been well documented on this blog in the past, but some people still swear by it, so I thought I’d mention it here. They do make ease-of-access a priority, and you can get to your Evernote stuff from just about anywhere. Using it is easy until you need to organize things with any complexity, and for the PWK labs, you’d have to be OK with using the #tags instead of folders.

Microsoft Onenote

Download Onenote from Microsoft here.

The Good

  • Feature rich app, integrates with Onenote Clipper browser extension
  • Free Windows, Mac, iPhone, Android native clients with web version for Linux
  • Free version is not feature limited (just space, which hasn’t been a problem for me)
  • Excellent hierarchical organization via notebooks > sections > pages > sub-pages

The Bad

  • Some people feel it has a bloated interface
  • Exporting notes can pose challenges with formatting if you stray outside the pre-made lines

After many trials and tribulations, I ended up going all-in with Onenote for PWK/OSCP, and life in general. The ability to create multiple, separate notebooks (and choose which ones you want to see on which devices) has been my favorite feature. I can separate work from life from projects from shared stuff this way, and I still have a good amount of hierarchical ability to organize things.

Your Favorite Markdown Editor

I see people profess their undying devotion to markdown when the note-taking discussion comes up in various OSCP forums/chats, and I respect their decision and desire for simplicity. However, the one feature I used most, and I can’t imagine living without in the OSCP course, is the ability to paste a screenshot into a note. I did this so much that it would have driven me crazy to have to do anything else, and with markdown, you have to do some form of “save image/reference image via text in the note/embed via some other mechanism”. There are extra steps involved, and you can’t easily do the copy/paste thing.

Clippers/Screenshot Tools

Speaking of screenshots and the need to embed them in your notes, there are several options I would recommend depending on your choice of note taking apps and the platforms upon which you use them. Here are my top three:

  • Snap ‘n Drag Pro (Mac only). Awesome customization options, ability to edit captures (add arrows/highlight/blurs), automatically adds to clipboard.
  • Skitch – If you use Evernote, use this (unless you are on a Mac, see above)
  • Shutter – Native Linux screenshot app

For PWK, I found the Evernote and Onenote clipper browser extensions to be limiting in that they only let you clip things from your web browser, when I needed to clip terminal output most frequently.

My Recommendations

Because I am primarily a Mac user, I need good support for screenshot pasting, and I prefer hierarchical note structure for organization, I went with Onenote and Snap ‘n Drag Pro for my PWK and OSCP work. I continue to use these two tools in my personal and professional life, too.

If I were not a Mac user, I’d go with CherryTree and Skitch.

Have any opinions or additional input about all of this? Let me know in the comments.

Windows Privilege Escalation (privesc) Resources

I have obtained a standard user account on Windows. Now what?

This is a common question I see people inquire about frequently on the Discord/Slack/Mattermost servers I hang out on. This includes people working on CTF exercises (Hack the Box), OSCP/PWK studies, and just pentesting in general. The answer, of course, is that you need to enumerate the system and find a way to become Admin.

The methodology for how you actually do this depends on a lot, all depending on your specific environment and circumstances.

Windows Privilege Escalation to the Rescue

Here are some useful resources on what to do next in your given situation, after you have succesfully exploited your way onto a Windows box, but before you have the system administrator role. I collected these links, snippets, and exploits during my OSCP studies, saving them in this massive OneNote notebook. Rather than letting them sit there where no one but me can access them, I thought I’d share.

Some of these get pretty detailed, and some of them have links to yet even more resources on this topic.

Have fun…this rabbit hole runs deep!

Privesc Resources

Elevating privileges by exploiting weak folder permissions
http://www.greyhathacker.net/?p=738/

Encyclopedia of Windows Privesc (video)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kMG8IsCohHA&feature=youtu.be

Windows Privesc Fundamentals
http://www.fuzzysecurity.com/tutorials/16.html

Windows Privesc Cheatsheet
https://it-ovid.blogspot.com/2012/02/windows-privilege-escalation.html

Windows Privesc Check
A script that automates the checking of common vulnerabilities that can be exploited to escalate your privileges:
http://pentestmonkey.net/tools/windows-privesc-check

Common Windows Privesc Vectors
https://www.toshellandback.com/2015/11/24/ms-priv-esc/

Windows Post-Exploitation Command List
http://www.handgrep.se/repository/cheatsheets/postexploitation/WindowsPost-Exploitation.pdf

WCE and Mimikatz in Memory over Meterpreter
https://justinelze.wordpress.com/2013/03/25/wce-and-mimikatz-in-memory-over-meterpreter/

Windows Privesc – includes tips and more resource links, on Github
https://github.com/togie6/Windows-Privesc

Do you have any Windows Privesc resources you think should go here? Comment below and I will add them.

Facebook, Privacy, and Staying Safe Online

Care about your privacy in the wake of all the Facebook news?

Switch to Mozilla Firefox as your main browser. It is now faster than Chrome or Internet Explorer, it uses less memory, and it goes a lot further to care for your privacy online and keep you safe. https://www.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/new/

Use Facebook in a restricted container to prevent it from tracking you when you are not on Facebook: https://blog.mozilla.org/fire…/facebook-container-extension/

Install the uBlock Origin add-on for Firefox to prevent trackers, ads (which are in and of themselves trackers), malware, and other nasties from harming you online. https://addons.mozilla.org/en-…/firefox/addon/ublock-origin/

Install EFF’s Privacy Badger add-on for Firefox to prevent even more tracking that uBlock doesn’t necessarily cover. https://addons.mozilla.org/…/firef…/addon/privacy-badger17/…

This setup will not only help you keep Facebook at arm’s length, it will help you in general to avoid malicious advertisements, malware, ransomware, and various types of web browser hijacking while surfing the Internet. Of course, you can always choose to leave Facebook altogether with these alternatives.

Enjoy, and stay safe!